1. Sole Proprietorship :
The Sole Proprietorship is an unincorporated business owned by one person. All the proprietor’s assets, both business and personal, are subject to attachment or other legal action which may be brought with respect to the business.
2. Partnership :
According to Thai law, there are three different types of partnership. They are (1) unregistered ordinary partnership, (2) registered ordinary partnership, and (3) limited partnership. A joint venture or consortium is deemed as kind of unregistered ordinary partnership but may be treated differently under the Revenue Code.
(A) Unregistered Ordinary Partnership
An unregistered ordinary partnership is one in which all partners are, without limit, jointly liable for all the obligations and debts of the partnership. The partnership cannot be regarded as a juristic entity separate from each partner, who must make a contribution in the form of money, properties or services.
(B) Registered Ordinary Partnership
If an ordinary partnership is registered, it becomes a separate juristic entity from each partner, who thereby gains the following advantages:
(1)The assets of the partnership have to be examined before creditors can claim debt payment from the partners. This is unlike an unregistered ordinary partnership, in which each partner is directly liable for debts incurred by the partnership.
(2)The liability of a partner for debts incurred is limited to two years from the date he ceased to be a member.
(C) Limited Partnership
(1) A limited partnership consists of two types of partner:
(a) one whose liability is limited to the specific amount which he has contributed to the partnership, and
(b) one whose has unlimited liability for all debts incurred by the partnership.
(2) A limited partnership must be registered and is regarded as a separate entity.
(3) It should only be managed by a partner who has unlimited liability.
(4) If the business of the partnership is managed by a partner whose liability is limited, that partner will become unlimitedly liable for all debts incurred by the partnership.
(5) Partners with limited liability are entitled to carry on business of the same nature as that of the partnership and are free to transfer their shares without prior consent of the other partners.
(6) Creditors of the partnership are not entitled to sue partners with limited liability unless the partnership is dissolved. Even then, creditor can claim only the following amounts:
(i) part of the undelivered contribution,
(ii) part of the contribution which has been withdrawn,
(iii) divined or interest received in bad faith or contrary to the law.
(7) New partners cannot be introduced into the partnership without the consent of all other partners. A new partner is liable for any of the partnership’s debts from time of his becoming a partner. Similarly, an ex-partner is liable for debts incurred by the partnership up to the termination of his right as a partner.
An agreement on how the profits and losses of the partnership are to be divided should be made between the partners of the partnership. In the event that no such agreement has been made, each partner’s share in the profits and losses will be calculated in accordance with the proportion of his contribution.
3. Limited Company :
Under Thai law, there are two types of limited companies, private company and public company. In this brief shall mention to private company only.
Limited company is a company which is formed with a capital divided into equal shares. The advantage of conducting business in the form of a limited company is that people can participate in large-scale business activities with their liability being limited to the amount unpaid on the shares held by them.
Management of the Company’s Business :
The company’s business is to be managed by the directors of the company as appointed at the meeting of the shareholders. The first group of directors is appointed at the statutory meeting and thereafter at the ordinary meetings. The directors have to manage the company’s business in accordance with the regulations passed at the first general meeting of shareholders. The regulations will usually specify which director(s) are to conduct transactions with outsiders. However, if other directors have an agency relationship with the company, they may conduct transactions which bind the company to outsiders. In this case, these directors will also be responsible to the company and the shareholders.
Although the directors have the authority to conduct all types of legitimate business on behalf of the company, there are some things for which they must obtain the approval of the shareholders at the shareholder’s meeting. These are :
(1) appointment and removal of directors(s),
(2) appointment of auditor(s),
(3) declaration regarding distribution of dividends,
(4) conducting business involving capital, fully or partly paid up in any form other than money,
(5) dissolution of the company,
(6) amalgamation with other company(ies),
(7) other matters recorded in the regulations of the Company.
4. Joint Venture :
A contractual unincorporated joint venture or consortium is not recognized as a unique legal entity under the Civil and Commercial Code, except, perhaps as a form of partnership, but these forms of organization are recognized under the Revenue Code.
5. Branches of Foreign Company :
There is no special requirement for foreign company to register its branch in order to do business in Thailand. However, most businesses fall within the scope of one or more laws or regulations which require a registration, either before or after commencement of activities and foreign business must follow the generally applicable procedures.
6. Representative Office :
By a regulation of the Prime Minister’s Office, special procedures were establishes for those companies that wish to establish branches in Thailand to engage in limited “non-trading” activities. These procedures are optional but may be beneficial in certain circumstances. If the business activities of a foreign company are limited to the search for Thai products to be exported to other organs of the company or to do quality control work associated with such purchase or to engage in market survey activities, it is recommended to register as representative office. If a company is accepted for this representative office, expedited visas and wok permits for up to two foreigners to work in the branch are available.
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By: Ekkapon Yuangnark